A VSG Approach to Resolving Microgrid Protection

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A VSG Approach to Resolving Microgrid ProtectionA VSG Approach to Resolving Microgrid ProtectionA VSG Approach to Resolving Microgrid Protection
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6296110607732924f7a0b801/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6296110607732924f7a0b801/bg1.jpg"><div class="c x0 y1 w2 h0"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x1 y4 w3 h3"><div class="t m0 x0 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x2 y4 w4 h3"><div class="t m0 x3 h2 y5 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1<span class="ff2">/</span><span class="ls1">13</span><span class="fc2 sc0"> </span></div></div><div class="c x0 y1 w2 h0"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y6 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y7 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y8 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A<span class="_ _0"></span> Virtual Synchronous Generator <span class="_ _1"></span>A<span class="_ _1"></span>pproach to Resolving Microgrid and Battery </div><div class="t m0 x5 h5 y9 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Protection Challenges<span class="ff4"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 ya ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 yb ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">John Glassm<span class="_ _2"></span>ire</div><div class="t m0 x8 h8 yc ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 x9 h7 yb ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">, Stanislav Chere<span class="_ _2"></span>vatskiy</div><div class="t m0 xa h8 yc ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 yb ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">, Galina <span class="_ _1"></span>Antonova</div><div class="t m0 xc h8 yc ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">3</div><div class="t m0 xd h7 yb ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">, <span class="_ _0"></span>An<span class="_ _2"></span>thony Fret<span class="_ _2"></span>well</div><div class="t m0 xe h8 yc ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">4</div><div class="t m0 xf h6 yb ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x6 h9 yd ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x10 ha ye ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Affiliation:</div><div class="t m0 x11 h8 yf ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> 1</div><div class="t m0 x12 h7 ye ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> Hitachi <span class="_ _1"></span>ABB Power Grids, USA. </div><div class="t m0 x13 h8 yf ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 ye ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> Hitachi <span class="_ _1"></span>ABB Power Grids, <span class="_ _1"></span>Australia. </div><div class="t m0 x15 h8 yf ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">3</div><div class="t m0 x16 h7 ye ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> Hitachi <span class="_ _1"></span>ABB Power </div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y10 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Grids, Canada. </div><div class="t m0 x18 h8 y11 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">4</div><div class="t m0 x19 h6 y10 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> ElectraNe<span class="_ _2"></span>t Pty Ltd, <span class="_ _1"></span>Australia<span class="ff1"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y12 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x1a hb y13 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Contact A<span class="_ _1"></span>uthor:<span class="ff2"> John Gl<span class="_ _2"></span>assm<span class="_ _2"></span>ire, <span class="fc1">john.glassm<span class="_ _2"></span>ire@hitachi-po<span class="_ _2"></span>wergrids.com<span class="_ _2"></span></span><span class="ff1 fs4"> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y14 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff4"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y15 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Microgrids, in <span class="_ _2"></span>addition t<span class="_ _2"></span>o keeping <span class="_ _2"></span>power o<span class="_ _2"></span>n <span class="_ _2"></span>when the n<span class="_ _2"></span>ormal <span class="_ _2"></span>power supply <span class="_ _2"></span>is unavailab<span class="_ _2"></span>le, can su<span class="_ _2"></span>pport the<span class="_ _2"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y16 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">integration of <span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _2"></span>ignificant <span class="_ _1"></span>penetrations of <span class="_ _1"></span>renewable <span class="_ _1"></span>energy <span class="_ _1"></span>and <span class="_ _1"></span>distributed generation. Microgrids, <span class="_ _1"></span>however<span class="_ _1"></span>, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y17 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">present unique protection challenges. One well<span class="_ _2"></span>-k<span class="_ _2"></span>nown challenge, covered broadly in industry publications, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y18 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">is <span class="_ _1"></span>that <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>fault <span class="_ _0"></span>c<span class="_ _2"></span>urrent characteristics <span class="_ _1"></span>of <span class="_ _1"></span>inverter-bas<span class="_ _2"></span>ed <span class="_ _1"></span>generation are <span class="_ _0"></span>ver<span class="_ _2"></span>y <span class="_ _1"></span>different <span class="_ _1"></span>from those <span class="_ _0"></span>of<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>synchro-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y19 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">nous gen<span class="_ _2"></span>erators <span class="_ _2"></span>and <span class="_ _2"></span>can <span class="_ _2"></span>also <span class="_ _2"></span>vary b<span class="_ _2"></span>y vend<span class="_ _2"></span>or<span class="_ _0"></span>, <span class="_ _2"></span>produc<span class="_ _2"></span>t, <span class="_ _2"></span>and setti<span class="_ _2"></span>ngs. <span class="_ _1"></span>A<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>second <span class="_ _2"></span>well<span class="_ _2"></span>-<span class="_ _2"></span>known c<span class="_ _2"></span>hallenge, <span class="_ _2"></span>par-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y1a ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ticularly <span class="_ _2"></span>in<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>icrogrids <span class="_ _3"></span>running <span class="_ _2"></span>o<span class="_ _2"></span>n <span class="_ _2"></span>sig<span class="_ _2"></span>nificant <span class="_ _3"></span>penetrations <span class="_ _3"></span>of <span class="_ _3"></span>renewable <span class="_ _2"></span>so<span class="_ _2"></span>urces, <span class="_ _3"></span>is <span class="_ _3"></span>a <span class="_ _2"></span>shortage <span class="_ _3"></span>or <span class="_ _3"></span>absence </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y1b ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of inertia that leads <span class="_ _2"></span>to system<span class="_ _2"></span> stability issues and the <span class="_ _2"></span>need for f<span class="_ _2"></span>ast protection operation. <span class="_ _3"></span><span class="ff1"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y1c ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>Virtual <span class="_ _5"></span>Synchronous<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>Generator<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>(<span class="fc2 sc0">V</span><span class="fc2 sc0">S</span><span class="fc2 sc0">G</span>), <span class="_ _4"></span>consisting <span class="_ _4"> </span>of <span class="_ _5"></span>a <span class="_ _5"></span>h<span class="_ _2"></span>igh<span class="_ _2"></span>-po<span class="_ _2"></span>wer <span class="_ _5"></span>invert<span class="_ _2"></span>er<span class="_ _0"></span>, <span class="_ _5"></span>s<span class="_ _2"></span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>art <span class="_ _5"></span>controls <span class="_ _5"></span>and<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>batter<span class="_ _2"></span>y </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y1d ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">energy storage system (BESS) can <span class="_ _1"></span>be used to <span class="_ _1"></span>resolve both these challenges. <span class="_ _0"></span>As the name implies, a VSG </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y1e ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">exhibits characteristics<span class="_ _2"></span> sim<span class="_ _2"></span>ilar to a synchronous ge<span class="_ _2"></span>nerator<span class="_ _1"></span><span class="ls2">. I<span class="ls0">ts short circui<span class="_ _2"></span>t fault curr<span class="_ _2"></span>ent characteristics<span class="_ _2"></span> and </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y1f ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">virtual <span class="_ _5"></span>in<span class="_ _2"></span>ertia, <span class="_ _4"> </span>in <span class="_ _5"></span>p<span class="_ _2"></span>articular<span class="_ _1"></span>, <span class="_ _5"></span>ass<span class="_ _2"></span>ist <span class="_ _5"></span>in <span class="_ _4"> </span>ad<span class="_ _2"></span>dressing <span class="_ _4"> </span>s<span class="_ _2"></span>ystem <span class="_ _4"></span>security <span class="_ _5"></span>a<span class="_ _2"></span>nd <span class="_ _5"></span>st<span class="_ _2"></span>ability <span class="_ _4"> </span>issues. <span class="_ _5"></span>T<span class="_ _2"></span>he <span class="_ _5"></span>VSG <span class="_ _4"> </span>can <span class="_ _4"> </span>also<span class="_ _2"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y20 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">regulate <span class="_ _3"></span>v<span class="_ _2"></span>oltage <span class="_ _3"></span>a<span class="_ _2"></span>nd <span class="_ _5"></span>reactive <span class="_ _3"></span>po<span class="_ _2"></span>wer <span class="_ _5"></span>in <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _5"></span>system<span class="_ _2"></span>. <span class="_ _3"></span>The <span class="_ _3"></span>fast <span class="_ _3"></span>r<span class="_ _2"></span>esponse <span class="_ _5"></span>time <span class="_ _5"></span>of <span class="_ _3"></span>h<span class="_ _2"></span>igh<span class="_ _2"></span>-<span class="_ _2"></span>power <span class="_ _5"></span>inverter-base<span class="_ _2"></span>d </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y21 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">resources, coupled <span class="_ _1"></span>with <span class="_ _1"></span>intelligent <span class="_ _1"></span>controls and <span class="_ _1"></span>automation, <span class="_ _1"></span>also <span class="_ _1"></span>enable <span class="_ _1"></span>black<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>start <span class="_ _1"></span>support, <span class="_ _1"></span>including <span class="_ _1"></span>black<span class="_ _2"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y22 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">start from 100% distri<span class="_ _2"></span>buted renewable res<span class="_ _2"></span>ources. <span class="_ _2"></span><span class="ff1"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y23 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The <span class="ls3">VSG</span> <span class="_ _1"></span>and associated <span class="_ _1"></span>protections were <span class="_ _1"></span>successfully demonstrated <span class="ls4">in</span> the largest <span class="_ _1"></span>renewable microgrid <span class="_ _1"></span>in </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y24 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Australia. T<span class="_ _2"></span>he <span class="_ _3"></span>Energy <span class="_ _2"></span>Stor<span class="_ _2"></span>age <span class="_ _2"></span>for <span class="_ _3"></span>Comm<span class="_ _2"></span>ercial <span class="_ _2"></span>Renew<span class="_ _2"></span>able <span class="_ _2"></span>Integra<span class="_ _2"></span>tion <span class="_ _3"></span>&#8211; <span class="_ _3"></span>South Australia <span class="_ _2"></span>(E<span class="_ _2"></span>SCRI-<span class="ls3">SA</span>) <span class="_ _3"></span>Dal-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y25 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">rymple <span class="_ _1"></span>BESS <span class="_ _1"></span>has <span class="_ _1"></span>been <span class="_ _1"></span>in <span class="_ _1"></span>operation <span class="_ _1"></span>since <span class="_ _1"></span>2018. <span class="_ _1"></span>It <span class="_ _1"></span>is <span class="_ _1"></span>owned <span class="_ _1"></span>and <span class="_ _1"></span>operated <span class="_ _1"></span>by <span class="_ _1"></span>South <span class="_ _0"></span>Australia&#8217;<span class="ls5">s <span class="_ _1"></span><span class="ls0">transmission </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y26 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">system <span class="_ _2"></span>operator <span class="_ _2"></span>(T<span class="_ _2"></span>SO) <span class="_ _2"></span>ElectraNet <span class="_ _2"></span>and <span class="_ _2"></span>f<span class="_ _2"></span>eatures <span class="_ _2"></span>the <span class="_ _2"></span>largest <span class="_ _2"></span>VSG <span class="_ _2"></span>BESS <span class="_ _2"></span>in <span class="_ _2"></span>the <span class="_ _2"></span>world<span class="_ _2"></span><span class="ls2">, <span class="_ _2"></span></span>capable <span class="_ _2"></span>of <span class="_ _2"></span>produci<span class="_ _2"></span>ng </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y27 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">30<span class="ff1 ls0"> <span class="ff2">MW<span class="_ _2"></span> for <span class="_ _2"></span>15 <span class="_ _2"></span>minutes. T<span class="_ _2"></span>he TSO <span class="_ _2"></span>developed <span class="_ _2"></span>the <span class="_ _2"></span>System <span class="_ _3"></span>Integrity Protect<span class="_ _2"></span>ion <span class="_ _2"></span>Schem<span class="_ _2"></span>e (SIPS) <span class="_ _2"></span>and <span class="_ _2"></span>Islanding<span class="_ _2"></span> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y28 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Detection <span class="_ _3"></span>Schem<span class="_ _2"></span>es <span class="_ _5"></span>(IDS), <span class="_ _3"></span>to <span class="_ _5"></span>mes<span class="_ _2"></span>h <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _3"></span>VSG <span class="_ _5"></span>into <span class="_ _5"></span>their <span class="_ _5"></span>existing <span class="_ _3"></span>protec<span class="_ _2"></span>tion <span class="_ _3"></span>schem<span class="_ _2"></span>es, <span class="_ _3"></span>resulting <span class="_ _5"></span>in <span class="_ _3"></span>a <span class="_ _5"></span>coordi-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y29 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">nated <span class="_ _2"></span>protect<span class="_ _2"></span>ion <span class="_ _2"></span>respo<span class="_ _2"></span>nse <span class="_ _2"></span>t<span class="_ _2"></span>o <span class="_ _3"></span>unlock <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _2"></span>capabilities <span class="_ _3"></span>of <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _2"></span>VSG.<span class="_ _3"></span> T<span class="_ _2"></span>his <span class="_ _2"></span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>icrogrid <span class="_ _2"></span>all<span class="_ _2"></span>ows <span class="_ _2"></span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>ore <span class="_ _3"></span>than <span class="_ _2"></span>100 <span class="_ _3"></span>km </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y2a ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of <span class="_ _2"></span>transm<span class="_ _2"></span>ission an<span class="_ _2"></span>d d<span class="_ _2"></span>istribution <span class="_ _2"></span>lin<span class="_ _2"></span>es <span class="_ _2"></span>to <span class="_ _2"></span>island <span class="_ _2"></span>and<span class="_ _2"></span> o<span class="_ _2"></span>perate <span class="_ _2"></span>with <span class="_ _2"></span>a <span class="_ _2"></span>9<span class="_ _2"></span>1<span class="_ _2"></span><span class="ff1"> </span>MW<span class="_ _3"></span> wind <span class="_ _2"></span>farm<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>and m<span class="_ _2"></span>ore <span class="_ _2"></span>than <span class="_ _2"></span>2<span class="_ _2"></span><span class="ff1"> </span>MW </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y2b ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of <span class="_ _3"></span>rooftop <span class="_ _2"></span>solar <span class="_ _3"></span>panels <span class="_ _3"></span>as <span class="_ _3"></span>distributed <span class="_ _3"></span>power <span class="_ _3"></span>sources. <span class="_ _3"></span>W<span class="_ _2"></span>hile <span class="_ _2"></span>islanded, <span class="_ _3"></span>local <span class="_ _3"></span>custom<span class="_ _2"></span>ers <span class="_ _2"></span>c<span class="_ _2"></span>ontinue <span class="_ _2"></span>to <span class="_ _3"></span>receive </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y2c ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">reliable <span class="_ _2"></span>high-<span class="_ _2"></span>quality <span class="_ _2"></span>po<span class="_ _2"></span>wer <span class="_ _2"></span>entirel<span class="_ _2"></span>y f<span class="_ _2"></span>rom<span class="_ _2"></span> r<span class="_ _2"></span>enewable <span class="_ _2"></span>sourc<span class="_ _2"></span>es<span class="_ _2"></span>. A<span class="_ _0"></span> k<span class="_ _2"></span>ey <span class="_ _2"></span>benefit <span class="_ _3"></span>demonstrated <span class="_ _3"></span>was <span class="_ _2"></span>a <span class="_ _2"></span>drast<span class="_ _2"></span>ic <span class="_ _2"></span>re-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y2d ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">duction <span class="_ _3"></span>in <span class="_ _5"></span>power <span class="_ _3"></span>ou<span class="_ _2"></span>tages <span class="_ _3"></span>f<span class="_ _2"></span>rom <span class="_ _5"></span>8 <span class="_ _3"></span>hours <span class="_ _5"></span>down <span class="_ _3"></span>to <span class="_ _5"></span>30 <span class="_ _3"></span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>inutes <span class="_ _3"></span>during <span class="_ _5"></span>the <span class="_ _3"></span>f<span class="_ _2"></span>irst <span class="_ _3"></span>six <span class="_ _3"></span>months <span class="_ _5"></span>of <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _5"></span>microgrid<span class="_ _5"></span>&#8217;<span class="ls5">s </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y2e ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">operation.<span class="ff1"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y2f ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Virtual Synchronous Gen<span class="_ _2"></span>erators (V<span class="_ _2"></span>SG)<span class="ff4"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y30 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">VSG<span class="ls0">s <span class="_ _5"></span>are <span class="_ _3"></span>a <span class="_ _3"></span>contro<span class="_ _2"></span>l <span class="_ _3"></span>applica<span class="_ _2"></span>tion <span class="_ _3"></span>for <span class="_ _3"></span>ena<span class="_ _2"></span>bling <span class="_ _3"></span>convert<span class="_ _2"></span>ers <span class="_ _3"></span>an<span class="_ _2"></span>d <span class="_ _5"></span>inverter-based <span class="_ _5"></span>technologies <span class="_ _5"></span>to <span class="_ _3"></span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>imic <span class="_ _5"></span>the <span class="_ _3"></span>be-</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y31 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">havior <span class="_ _5"></span>of <span class="_ _4"> </span>traditiona<span class="_ _2"></span>l <span class="_ _5"></span>s<span class="_ _2"></span>ynchronous <span class="_ _4"> </span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>achines, <span class="_ _5"></span>i<span class="_ _2"></span>ncluding <span class="_ _4"> </span>reciprocating <span class="_ _4"> </span>diesel <span class="_ _4"> </span>gener<span class="_ _2"></span>ators<span class="_ _2"></span><span class="ls2">, <span class="_ _5"></span></span>gas<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>turb<span class="_ _2"></span>ines, <span class="_ _4"> </span>and </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y32 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">synchronous c<span class="_ _2"></span>ondensers<span class="_ _2"></span>. VSG <span class="_ _2"></span>provide <span class="_ _2"></span>man<span class="_ _2"></span>y of the <span class="_ _2"></span>sam<span class="_ _2"></span>e grid stab<span class="_ _2"></span>ilization ser<span class="_ _2"></span>vices as <span class="_ _2"></span>traditional ge<span class="_ _2"></span>nera-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y33 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tors, <span class="_ _2"></span>including <span class="_ _2"></span>s<span class="_ _2"></span>ystem <span class="_ _2"></span>strength, <span class="_ _2"></span>s<span class="_ _2"></span>ystem <span class="_ _2"></span>inertia, <span class="_ _2"></span>frequen<span class="_ _2"></span>cy <span class="_ _2"></span>regulation, <span class="_ _2"></span>an<span class="_ _2"></span>d <span class="_ _2"></span>voltage <span class="_ _2"></span>s<span class="_ _2"></span>upport, <span class="_ _5"></span>and <span class="_ _2"></span>are <span class="_ _3"></span>unique </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y34 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in their ability to be tune<span class="_ _2"></span>d via software adjustm<span class="_ _2"></span>ents<span class="_ _2"></span><span class="ls2">. </span><span class="ff1"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y35 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>V<span class="_ _2"></span>SG <span class="_ _3"></span>is <span class="_ _3"></span>a <span class="_ _5"></span>type <span class="_ _3"></span>of <span class="_ _5"></span>the <span class="_ _3"></span>broader <span class="_ _5"></span>group <span class="_ _3"></span>of<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>Virtual <span class="_ _3"></span>Synchronous <span class="_ _5"></span>Machine <span class="_ _3"></span>(VSM),<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>specifical<span class="_ _2"></span>ly <span class="_ _3"></span>tuned <span class="_ _5"></span><span class="ls6">and</span> <span class="_ _3"></span>d<span class="_ _2"></span>e-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y36 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">signed <span class="_ _3"></span>to <span class="_ _3"></span>replace <span class="_ _3"></span>tra<span class="_ _2"></span>ditional <span class="_ _3"></span>s<span class="_ _2"></span>ynchronous <span class="_ _5"></span>generators. <span class="_ _3"></span>VSM <span class="_ _3"></span>a<span class="_ _2"></span>lso <span class="_ _3"></span>include <span class="_ _3"></span>virtual <span class="_ _3"></span>s<span class="_ _2"></span>ynchronous <span class="_ _5"></span>conde<span class="_ _2"></span>nsers<span class="ls2">, </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y37 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">which <span class="_ _3"></span>ha<span class="_ _2"></span>ve <span class="_ _3"></span>a <span class="_ _5"></span>primar<span class="_ _2"></span>y <span class="_ _3"></span>value <span class="_ _5"></span>of <span class="_ _3"></span>i<span class="_ _2"></span>njecting <span class="_ _3"></span>re<span class="_ _2"></span>active<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>power<span class="_ _1"></span><span class="ls2">. <span class="ls0">A<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>k<span class="_ _2"></span>ey <span class="_ _5"></span>value <span class="_ _3"></span>of <span class="_ _5"></span>VS<span class="_ _2"></span>M <span class="_ _5"></span>is <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _5"></span>ability <span class="_ _5"></span>to <span class="_ _5"></span>provide <span class="_ _5"></span>new </span></span></div></div><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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