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papers on brain computer interface.. how brain waves are used for detecting the wishes of individual
BCI.rar
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/626702a64c65f41259498532/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/626702a64c65f41259498532/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">PRES<span class="_ _0"></span>IDEN<span class="_ _0"></span>TIAL<span class="_ _1"> </span>ADD<span class="_ _0"></span>RESS,<span class="_ _1"> </span>2005</div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y2 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Breaking<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>silence:<span class="_ _2"> </span>Brain<span class="_ _3"></span>&#8211;computer<span class="_ _2"> </span>interfaces<span class="_ _2"> </span>(BCI<span class="_ _3"></span>)</div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y3 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">for<span class="_ _2"> </span>communication<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>motor<span class="_ _2"> </span>control</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y4 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">NIEL<span class="_ _0"></span>S<span class="_ _1"> </span>BIRBA<span class="_ _0"></span>UMER</div><div class="t m1 x2 h5 y5 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a,b</div><div class="t m1 x1 h6 y6 ff2 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a</div><div class="t m0 x3 h7 y7 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Insti<span class="_ _0"></span>tu<span class="_ _0"></span>te<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>Medi<span class="_ _0"></span>cal<span class="_ _5"> </span>Psych<span class="_ _0"></span>olog<span class="_ _0"></span>y<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>Beha<span class="_ _0"></span>vio<span class="_ _0"></span>ral<span class="_ _5"> </span>Ne<span class="_ _0"></span>urob<span class="_ _0"></span>iolog<span class="_ _0"></span>y,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Uni<span class="_ _0"></span>versi<span class="_ _0"></span>ty<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>T<span class="_ _6"></span>u</div><div class="t m0 x4 h7 y8 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#168;</div><div class="t m0 x5 h7 y7 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">bing<span class="_ _0"></span>en,<span class="_ _5"> </span>T<span class="_ _6"></span>u</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y8 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#168;</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y7 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">bing<span class="_ _0"></span>en,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Germ<span class="_ _0"></span>any</div><div class="t m1 x1 h6 y9 ff2 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">b</div><div class="t m0 x3 h7 ya ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Nati<span class="_ _0"></span>onal<span class="_ _5"> </span>Ins<span class="_ _0"></span>titu<span class="_ _0"></span>tes<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>Hea<span class="_ _0"></span>lt<span class="_ _0"></span>h,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Nation<span class="_ _0"></span>al<span class="_ _5"> </span>Insti<span class="_ _0"></span>tute<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>Neur<span class="_ _0"></span>olo<span class="_ _0"></span>gical<span class="_ _7"> </span>Disorde<span class="_ _0"></span>rs<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>Strok<span class="_ _0"></span>e,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Human<span class="_ _5"> </span>Corti<span class="_ _0"></span>ca<span class="_ _0"></span>l<span class="_ _5"> </span>Physio<span class="_ _0"></span>logy,<span class="_ _7"> </span>Bethes<span class="_ _0"></span>da,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Maryl<span class="_ _0"></span>and,<span class="_ _5"> </span>USA</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 yb ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abst<span class="_ _0"></span>ract</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 yc ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Brain&#8211;c<span class="_ _0"></span>omp<span class="_ _0"></span>ut<span class="_ _0"></span>er<span class="_ _7"> </span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>nter<span class="_ _0"></span>fac<span class="_ _0"></span>es<span class="_ _7"> </span>(B<span class="_ _0"></span>CI)<span class="_ _7"> </span>al<span class="_ _0"></span>low<span class="_ _8"> </span>con<span class="_ _0"></span>tro<span class="_ _0"></span>l<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>comput<span class="_ _0"></span>ers<span class="_ _8"> </span>or<span class="_ _8"> </span>ext<span class="_ _0"></span>ernal<span class="_ _8"> </span>d<span class="_ _0"></span>evic<span class="_ _0"></span>es<span class="_ _8"> </span>with<span class="_ _8"> </span>re<span class="_ _0"></span>gula<span class="_ _0"></span>tio<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>brain<span class="_ _8"> </span>act<span class="_ _0"></span>ivit<span class="_ _0"></span>y<span class="_ _8"> </span>alone.</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 yd ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Invas<span class="_ _0"></span>ive<span class="_ _9"> </span>BCIs,<span class="_ _9"> </span>almo<span class="_ _0"></span>st<span class="_ _9"> </span>exclu<span class="_ _0"></span>si<span class="_ _0"></span>vely<span class="_ _9"> </span>inv<span class="_ _0"></span>esti<span class="_ _0"></span>gat<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _9"> </span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>animal<span class="_ _9"> </span>mo<span class="_ _0"></span>del<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _9"> </span>using<span class="_ _9"> </span>imp<span class="_ _0"></span>lant<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _9"> </span>elec<span class="_ _0"></span>tro<span class="_ _0"></span>des<span class="_ _9"> </span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>bra<span class="_ _0"></span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>tissu<span class="_ _0"></span>e,<span class="_ _9"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 ye ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">noni<span class="_ _0"></span>nva<span class="_ _0"></span>si<span class="_ _0"></span>ve<span class="_ _1"> </span>BCIs<span class="_ _5"> </span>using<span class="_ _5"> </span>elec<span class="_ _0"></span>tro<span class="_ _0"></span>phys<span class="_ _0"></span>iolo<span class="_ _0"></span>gic<span class="_ _0"></span>al<span class="_ _5"> </span>record<span class="_ _0"></span>in<span class="_ _0"></span>gs<span class="_ _1"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>human<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _5"> </span>are<span class="_ _1"> </span>des<span class="_ _0"></span>cri<span class="_ _0"></span>bed.<span class="_ _1"> </span>Cli<span class="_ _0"></span>nic<span class="_ _0"></span>al<span class="_ _5"> </span>applica<span class="_ _0"></span>ti<span class="_ _0"></span>ons<span class="_ _5"> </span>were<span class="_ _5"> </span>reser<span class="_ _0"></span>ved</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 yf ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">wit<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _9"> </span>few<span class="_ _9"> </span>exc<span class="_ _0"></span>ept<span class="_ _0"></span>ion<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _9"> </span>for<span class="_ _9"> </span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>he<span class="_ _9"> </span>non<span class="_ _0"></span>inva<span class="_ _0"></span>siv<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _9"> </span>app<span class="_ _0"></span>roac<span class="_ _0"></span>h:<span class="_ _9"> </span>commu<span class="_ _0"></span>ni<span class="_ _0"></span>cat<span class="_ _0"></span>ion<span class="_ _9"> </span>wi<span class="_ _0"></span>th<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>mp<span class="_ _0"></span>let<span class="_ _0"></span>ely<span class="_ _9"> </span>para<span class="_ _0"></span>lyz<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>lo<span class="_ _0"></span>cke<span class="_ _0"></span>d-in</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y10 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">syndr<span class="_ _0"></span>ome<span class="_ _1"> </span>with<span class="_ _1"> </span>slow<span class="_ _a"> </span>cor<span class="_ _0"></span>tic<span class="_ _0"></span>al<span class="_ _a"> </span>pot<span class="_ _0"></span>ent<span class="_ _0"></span>ials,<span class="_ _1"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _0"></span>imot<span class="_ _0"></span>or<span class="_ _1"> </span>rhythm<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>P300,<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _1"> </span>restor<span class="_ _0"></span>at<span class="_ _0"></span>ion<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>moveme<span class="_ _0"></span>nt<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>cor<span class="_ _0"></span>tica<span class="_ _0"></span>l</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y11 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">reo<span class="_ _0"></span>rgan<span class="_ _0"></span>iza<span class="_ _0"></span>tion<span class="_ _8"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>high<span class="_ _7"> </span>spin<span class="_ _0"></span>al<span class="_ _7"> </span>cord<span class="_ _7"> </span>les<span class="_ _0"></span>ion<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _5"> </span>an<span class="_ _0"></span>d<span class="_ _5"> </span>ch<span class="_ _0"></span>roni<span class="_ _0"></span>c<span class="_ _7"> </span>strok<span class="_ _0"></span>e.<span class="_ _5"> </span>It<span class="_ _5"> </span>was<span class="_ _7"> </span>dem<span class="_ _0"></span>ons<span class="_ _0"></span>trat<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _7"> </span>tha<span class="_ _0"></span>t<span class="_ _5"> </span>non<span class="_ _0"></span>inv<span class="_ _0"></span>asiv<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _7"> </span>EEG-bas<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _5"> </span>BC<span class="_ _0"></span>Is</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y12 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">allo<span class="_ _0"></span>w<span class="_ _5"> </span>brain-de<span class="_ _0"></span>ri<span class="_ _0"></span>ved<span class="_ _5"> </span>commun<span class="_ _0"></span>ic<span class="_ _0"></span>atio<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _1"> </span>para<span class="_ _0"></span>lyz<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>locked-in<span class="_ _5"> </span>pa<span class="_ _0"></span>tien<span class="_ _0"></span>ts<span class="_ _5"> </span>but<span class="_ _5"> </span>not<span class="_ _1"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>comp<span class="_ _0"></span>let<span class="_ _0"></span>ely<span class="_ _5"> </span>locked-in<span class="_ _5"> </span>pa<span class="_ _0"></span>tien<span class="_ _0"></span>ts.<span class="_ _5"> </span>At</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y13 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">pres<span class="_ _0"></span>ent<span class="_ _a"> </span>no<span class="_ _c"> </span>&#64257;rm<span class="_ _b"> </span>conc<span class="_ _0"></span>lus<span class="_ _0"></span>ion<span class="_ _a"> </span>about<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>clini<span class="_ _0"></span>cal<span class="_ _b"> </span>uti<span class="_ _0"></span>lity<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>BCI<span class="_ _b"> </span>for<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>contro<span class="_ _0"></span>l<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>volun<span class="_ _0"></span>ta<span class="_ _0"></span>ry<span class="_ _b"> </span>moveme<span class="_ _0"></span>nt<span class="_ _a"> </span>can<span class="_ _b"> </span>be<span class="_ _c"> </span>mad<span class="_ _0"></span>e.</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y14 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Invas<span class="_ _0"></span>ive<span class="_ _1"> </span>mult<span class="_ _0"></span>iel<span class="_ _0"></span>ect<span class="_ _0"></span>rode<span class="_ _1"> </span>BCIs<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _1"> </span>other<span class="_ _0"></span>wise<span class="_ _1"> </span>heal<span class="_ _0"></span>thy<span class="_ _1"> </span>animal<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _1"> </span>allowed<span class="_ _1"> </span>exec<span class="_ _0"></span>uti<span class="_ _0"></span>on<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>reac<span class="_ _0"></span>hin<span class="_ _0"></span>g,<span class="_ _a"> </span>gras<span class="_ _0"></span>ping,<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>for<span class="_ _0"></span>ce<span class="_ _1"> </span>vari-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y15 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">atio<span class="_ _0"></span>ns<span class="_ _1"> </span>ba<span class="_ _0"></span>sed<span class="_ _5"> </span>on<span class="_ _1"> </span>spike<span class="_ _1"> </span>pat<span class="_ _0"></span>te<span class="_ _0"></span>rns<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>extr<span class="_ _0"></span>ace<span class="_ _0"></span>llula<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"> </span>&#64257;eld<span class="_ _1"> </span>po<span class="_ _0"></span>ten<span class="_ _0"></span>tial<span class="_ _0"></span>s.<span class="_ _1"> </span>The<span class="_ _1"> </span>newl<span class="_ _0"></span>y<span class="_ _1"> </span>devel<span class="_ _0"></span>ope<span class="_ _0"></span>d<span class="_ _1"> </span>fMRI-BC<span class="_ _0"></span>Is<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _1"> </span>NIRS-<span class="_ _0"></span>BCIs,</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y16 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">lik<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>EEG<span class="_ _5"> </span>BCIs,<span class="_ _5"> </span>off<span class="_ _0"></span>er<span class="_ _5"> </span>pro<span class="_ _0"></span>mise<span class="_ _7"> </span>for<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>learn<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _5"> </span>reg<span class="_ _0"></span>ula<span class="_ _0"></span>tion<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>emot<span class="_ _0"></span>iona<span class="_ _0"></span>l<span class="_ _5"> </span>dis<span class="_ _0"></span>ord<span class="_ _0"></span>ers<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>also<span class="_ _7"> </span>disor<span class="_ _0"></span>ders<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>youn<span class="_ _0"></span>g<span class="_ _5"> </span>chil<span class="_ _0"></span>dre<span class="_ _0"></span>n.</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y17 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Descr<span class="_ _0"></span>ip<span class="_ _0"></span>tors:<span class="_ _8"> </span><span class="ff2">Brain&#8211;co<span class="_ _0"></span>mput<span class="_ _0"></span>er<span class="_ _8"> </span>inter<span class="_ _0"></span>fac<span class="_ _0"></span>e,<span class="_ _7"> </span>Brain&#8211;m<span class="_ _0"></span>achi<span class="_ _0"></span>ne<span class="_ _8"> </span>interf<span class="_ _0"></span>ac<span class="_ _0"></span>e,<span class="_ _7"> </span>EEG,<span class="_ _7"> </span>Invas<span class="_ _0"></span>ive<span class="_ _8"> </span>brai<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _7"> </span>measu<span class="_ _0"></span>re<span class="_ _0"></span>s,<span class="_ _7"> </span>Locked-i<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _8"> </span>syndrom<span class="_ _0"></span>e</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y18 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A<span class="_ _9"> </span>brai<span class="_ _0"></span>n&#8211;co<span class="_ _0"></span>mput<span class="_ _0"></span>er<span class="_ _c"> </span>interf<span class="_ _0"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>ce<span class="_ _c"> </span>(BCI)<span class="_ _9"> </span>or<span class="_ _c"> </span>brain&#8211;ma<span class="_ _0"></span>ch<span class="_ _0"></span>ine<span class="_ _c"> </span>inte<span class="_ _0"></span>rfa<span class="_ _0"></span>ce</div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y19 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(BMI)<span class="_ _1"> </span>activa<span class="_ _0"></span>tes<span class="_ _1"> </span>ele<span class="_ _0"></span>ctro<span class="_ _0"></span>nic<span class="_ _1"> </span>or<span class="_ _1"> </span>mecha<span class="_ _0"></span>nic<span class="_ _0"></span>al<span class="_ _1"> </span>device<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _1"> </span>with<span class="_ _1"> </span>brain<span class="_ _1"> </span>ac-</div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y1a ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tivi<span class="_ _0"></span>ty<span class="_ _8"> </span>alon<span class="_ _0"></span>e.<span class="_ _7"> </span>BCIs<span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>BMIs<span class="_ _8"> </span>allo<span class="_ _0"></span>w<span class="_ _8"> </span>direct<span class="_ _8"> </span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>rain<span class="_ _8"> </span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>mmun<span class="_ _0"></span>icat<span class="_ _0"></span>ion<span class="_ _8"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y1b ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">comp<span class="_ _0"></span>lete<span class="_ _0"></span>ly<span class="_ _b"> </span>para<span class="_ _0"></span>lyzed<span class="_ _a"> </span>patient<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>rest<span class="_ _0"></span>orat<span class="_ _0"></span>ion<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>move<span class="_ _0"></span>ment<span class="_ _a"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y1c ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">para<span class="_ _0"></span>lyze<span class="_ _0"></span>d<span class="_ _5"> </span>limbs<span class="_ _5"> </span>thro<span class="_ _0"></span>ugh<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>tra<span class="_ _0"></span>nsmi<span class="_ _0"></span>ssio<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>brain<span class="_ _5"> </span>sign<span class="_ _0"></span>als<span class="_ _5"> </span>to<span class="_ _5"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y1d ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">musc<span class="_ _0"></span>les<span class="_ _1"> </span>or<span class="_ _1"> </span>to<span class="_ _1"> </span>extern<span class="_ _0"></span>al<span class="_ _1"> </span>prosth<span class="_ _0"></span>eti<span class="_ _0"></span>c<span class="_ _1"> </span>devic<span class="_ _0"></span>es.<span class="_ _1"> </span>W<span class="_ _6"></span>e<span class="_ _a"> </span>diff<span class="_ _0"></span>ere<span class="_ _0"></span>ntia<span class="_ _0"></span>te<span class="_ _1"> </span>inva-</div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y1e ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">siv<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>from<span class="_ _7"> </span>noninv<span class="_ _0"></span>asi<span class="_ _0"></span>ve<span class="_ _5"> </span>BCIs:<span class="_ _5"> </span>Inva<span class="_ _0"></span>sive<span class="_ _7"> </span>BCIs<span class="_ _5"> </span>use<span class="_ _5"> </span>acti<span class="_ _0"></span>vi<span class="_ _0"></span>ty<span class="_ _5"> </span>recor<span class="_ _0"></span>de<span class="_ _0"></span>d</div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y1f ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">by<span class="_ _d"> </span>bra<span class="_ _0"></span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>imp<span class="_ _0"></span>lan<span class="_ _0"></span>ted<span class="_ _9"> </span>micro<span class="_ _0"></span>-<span class="_ _d"> </span>or<span class="_ _d"> </span>macro<span class="_ _0"></span>el<span class="_ _0"></span>ect<span class="_ _0"></span>rode<span class="_ _0"></span>s,<span class="_ _d"> </span>wher<span class="_ _0"></span>eas<span class="_ _9"> </span>non-</div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y20 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">inv<span class="_ _0"></span>asiv<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>BC<span class="_ _0"></span>Is<span class="_ _7"> </span>use<span class="_ _7"> </span>brain<span class="_ _7"> </span>sig<span class="_ _0"></span>nals<span class="_ _8"> </span>recorde<span class="_ _0"></span>d<span class="_ _7"> </span>with<span class="_ _7"> </span>sen<span class="_ _0"></span>sors<span class="_ _8"> </span>outsid<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _7"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y21 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">bod<span class="_ _0"></span>y<span class="_ _1"> </span>boun<span class="_ _0"></span>dari<span class="_ _0"></span>es.</div><div class="t m0 x4 ha y22 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _5"> </span>bra<span class="_ _0"></span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>sig<span class="_ _0"></span>nals<span class="_ _7"> </span>emplo<span class="_ _0"></span>yed<span class="_ _5"> </span>for<span class="_ _7"> </span>invasi<span class="_ _0"></span>ve<span class="_ _5"> </span>BCIs<span class="_ _5"> </span>to<span class="_ _7"> </span>date<span class="_ _5"> </span>incl<span class="_ _0"></span>ud<span class="_ _0"></span>e</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y23 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(1)<span class="_ _5"> </span>acti<span class="_ _0"></span>on<span class="_ _7"> </span>potent<span class="_ _0"></span>ia<span class="_ _0"></span>ls<span class="_ _5"> </span>fr<span class="_ _0"></span>om<span class="_ _7"> </span>nerve<span class="_ _7"> </span>cells<span class="_ _7"> </span>or<span class="_ _7"> </span>nerve<span class="_ _5"> </span>&#64257;bers<span class="_ _7"> </span>(Kenn<span class="_ _0"></span>edy<span class="_ _5"> </span>&amp;</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y24 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Adams<span class="_ _0"></span>,<span class="_ _5"> </span>2003;<span class="_ _5"> </span>Kenned<span class="_ _0"></span>y,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Bakay,<span class="_ _7"> </span>Moore,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Adam<span class="_ _0"></span>s,<span class="_ _5"> </span>&amp;<span class="_ _5"> </span>Goldwa<span class="_ _0"></span>ithe,</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y25 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2000),<span class="_ _b"> </span>(2)<span class="_ _c"> </span>synapti<span class="_ _0"></span>c<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>extra<span class="_ _0"></span>cell<span class="_ _0"></span>ul<span class="_ _0"></span>ar<span class="_ _b"> </span>&#64257;eld<span class="_ _b"> </span>poten<span class="_ _0"></span>tial<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _b"> </span>(Nicoleli<span class="_ _0"></span>s,</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y26 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2001;<span class="_ _c"> </span>Serru<span class="_ _0"></span>ya,<span class="_ _c"> </span>Hatso<span class="_ _0"></span>poulo<span class="_ _0"></span>s,<span class="_ _c"> </span>Panin<span class="_ _0"></span>ski,<span class="_ _b"> </span>Fellows,<span class="_ _b"> </span>&amp;<span class="_ _c"> </span>Donoghu<span class="_ _0"></span>e,</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y27 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2002),<span class="_ _e"> </span>and<span class="_ _e"> </span>(3)<span class="_ _e"> </span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>lec<span class="_ _0"></span>tro<span class="_ _0"></span>cort<span class="_ _0"></span>ico<span class="_ _0"></span>gra<span class="_ _0"></span>ms<span class="_ _e"> </span>(ECoG;<span class="_ _e"> </span>Lal<span class="_ _d"> </span>et<span class="_ _e"> </span>al.,<span class="_ _e"> </span>2005;</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y28 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Leuth<span class="_ _0"></span>ardt<span class="_ _0"></span>,<span class="_ _9"> </span>Schalk,<span class="_ _9"> </span>W<span class="_ _6"></span>olp<span class="_ _0"></span>aw,<span class="_ _9"> </span>Ojema<span class="_ _0"></span>nn,<span class="_ _9"> </span>&amp;<span class="_ _d"> </span>Moran,<span class="_ _c"> </span>2004).<span class="_ _d"> </span>The</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y29 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">noni<span class="_ _0"></span>nv<span class="_ _0"></span>asiv<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _1"> </span>BCIs<span class="_ _1"> </span>used<span class="_ _1"> </span>(1)<span class="_ _a"> </span>slow<span class="_ _1"> </span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>rtic<span class="_ _0"></span>al<span class="_ _1"> </span>pote<span class="_ _0"></span>ntia<span class="_ _0"></span>ls<span class="_ _1"> </span>(SCP)<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y2a ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">EEG<span class="_ _1"> </span>(Birba<span class="_ _0"></span>umer<span class="_ _1"> </span>et<span class="_ _1"> </span>al.,<span class="_ _1"> </span>1999),<span class="_ _a"> </span>(2)<span class="_ _a"> </span>EEG<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>MEG<span class="_ _1"> </span>oscil<span class="_ _0"></span>la<span class="_ _0"></span>tion<span class="_ _0"></span>s,</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y2b ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">main<span class="_ _0"></span>ly<span class="_ _e"> </span>sen<span class="_ _0"></span>sori<span class="_ _0"></span>mot<span class="_ _0"></span>or<span class="_ _e"> </span>rhyth<span class="_ _0"></span>m<span class="_ _e"> </span>(SMR),<span class="_ _e"> </span>also<span class="_ _e"> </span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>alle<span class="_ _0"></span>d<span class="_ _e"> </span>mu-rhyt<span class="_ _0"></span>hm</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y2c ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(Pfurt<span class="_ _0"></span>sche<span class="_ _0"></span>ll<span class="_ _0"></span>er,<span class="_ _a"> </span>Neupe<span class="_ _0"></span>r,<span class="_ _1"> </span>&amp;<span class="_ _b"> </span>Birb<span class="_ _0"></span>aume<span class="_ _0"></span>r,<span class="_ _a"> </span>2005;<span class="_ _a"> </span>Pfur<span class="_ _0"></span>tsche<span class="_ _0"></span>ll<span class="_ _0"></span>er,<span class="_ _a"> </span>Neu-</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y2d ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">per,<span class="_ _7"> </span>et<span class="_ _5"> </span>al.,<span class="_ _7"> </span>2003;<span class="_ _5"> </span>W<span class="_ _6"></span>olpa<span class="_ _0"></span>w,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Birbau<span class="_ _0"></span>me<span class="_ _0"></span>r,<span class="_ _5"> </span>McFarla<span class="_ _0"></span>nd,<span class="_ _7"> </span>Pfurtsc<span class="_ _0"></span>hel<span class="_ _0"></span>ler,</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y2e ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&amp;<span class="_ _b"> </span>V<span class="_ _6"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>ugha<span class="_ _0"></span>n,<span class="_ _b"> </span>2002),<span class="_ _c"> </span>(3)<span class="_ _c"> </span>P300<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>othe<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _b"> </span>event-r<span class="_ _0"></span>ela<span class="_ _0"></span>ted<span class="_ _a"> </span>brain<span class="_ _a"> </span>po-</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y2f ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ten<span class="_ _0"></span>tials<span class="_ _8"> </span>(E<span class="_ _0"></span>RPs;<span class="_ _8"> </span>Farwell<span class="_ _8"> </span>&amp;<span class="_ _8"> </span>Donchin<span class="_ _0"></span>,<span class="_ _8"> </span>1988),<span class="_ _7"> </span>(4)<span class="_ _8"> </span>BOLD<span class="_ _8"> </span>resp<span class="_ _0"></span>onse<span class="_ _8"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y30 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">fun<span class="_ _0"></span>ctio<span class="_ _0"></span>nal<span class="_ _e"> </span>magn<span class="_ _0"></span>etic<span class="_ _e"> </span>re<span class="_ _0"></span>sona<span class="_ _0"></span>nce<span class="_ _e"> </span>imagi<span class="_ _0"></span>ng<span class="_ _e"> </span>(fMRI;<span class="_ _4"> </span>Hinte<span class="_ _0"></span>rbe<span class="_ _0"></span>rger</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y31 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">et<span class="_ _7"> </span>al.,<span class="_ _5"> </span>2004;<span class="_ _7"> </span>W<span class="_ _6"></span>eiskop<span class="_ _0"></span>f<span class="_ _7"> </span>et<span class="_ _7"> </span>al.,<span class="_ _5"> </span>2003;<span class="_ _5"> </span>W<span class="_ _6"></span>ei<span class="_ _0"></span>sko<span class="_ _0"></span>pf,<span class="_ _7"> </span>Scharno<span class="_ _0"></span>wski,<span class="_ _7"> </span>et<span class="_ _7"> </span>al.,</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y32 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2005),<span class="_ _e"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>(5)<span class="_ _e"> </span>nea<span class="_ _0"></span>r-infr<span class="_ _0"></span>ar<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _d"> </span>spect<span class="_ _0"></span>rosc<span class="_ _0"></span>opy<span class="_ _d"> </span>(NIRS)<span class="_ _e"> </span>m<span class="_ _0"></span>easu<span class="_ _0"></span>rin<span class="_ _0"></span>g</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y33 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cort<span class="_ _0"></span>ical<span class="_ _a"> </span>blo<span class="_ _0"></span>od<span class="_ _b"> </span>&#64258;ow<span class="_ _b"> </span>(Coyle,<span class="_ _b"> </span>W<span class="_ _6"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>rd,<span class="_ _b"> </span>Mark<span class="_ _0"></span>ham,<span class="_ _b"> </span>McDarby,<span class="_ _a"> </span>2004;</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y34 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Sita<span class="_ _0"></span>ram<span class="_ _5"> </span>et<span class="_ _1"> </span>al.,<span class="_ _1"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>press).</div><div class="t m0 x4 ha y35 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">This<span class="_ _5"> </span>artic<span class="_ _0"></span>le<span class="_ _5"> </span>revi<span class="_ _0"></span>ews<span class="_ _5"> </span>th<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>resea<span class="_ _0"></span>rch<span class="_ _5"> </span>conc<span class="_ _0"></span>ern<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _5"> </span>with<span class="_ _5"> </span>inva<span class="_ _0"></span>siv<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y36 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">noni<span class="_ _0"></span>nv<span class="_ _0"></span>asiv<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _7"> </span>BCIs<span class="_ _7"> </span>from<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>pe<span class="_ _0"></span>rspe<span class="_ _0"></span>ctiv<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"></span>ir<span class="_ _8"> </span>clinic<span class="_ _0"></span>al<span class="_ _7"> </span>use<span class="_ _0"></span>fuln<span class="_ _0"></span>ess</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y37 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">for<span class="_ _5"> </span>com<span class="_ _0"></span>muni<span class="_ _0"></span>cati<span class="_ _0"></span>on<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>moto<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _5"> </span>restau<span class="_ _0"></span>ra<span class="_ _0"></span>tion<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>para<span class="_ _0"></span>lysis.<span class="_ _5"> </span>The<span class="_ _5"> </span>re-</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y38 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">vie<span class="_ _0"></span>ws<span class="_ _e"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>vail<span class="_ _0"></span>able<span class="_ _d"> </span>on<span class="_ _e"> </span>in<span class="_ _0"></span>vas<span class="_ _0"></span>ive<span class="_ _d"> </span>BCI<span class="_ _e"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>animal<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _e"> </span>(Nico<span class="_ _0"></span>leli<span class="_ _0"></span>s,<span class="_ _e"> </span>2003;</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y39 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Nicol<span class="_ _0"></span>eli<span class="_ _0"></span>s,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Birb<span class="_ _0"></span>aumer<span class="_ _e"> </span>&amp;<span class="_ _4"> </span>Muell<span class="_ _0"></span>er,<span class="_ _4"> </span>2004;<span class="_ _4"> </span>Schwa<span class="_ _0"></span>rtz,<span class="_ _e"> </span>T<span class="_ _6"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>ylor,<span class="_ _e"> </span>&amp;</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y3a ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">Tillery,<span class="_ _7"> </span>20<span class="_ _3"></span>01)<span class="_ _7"> </span>describe<span class="_ _8"> </span>primarily<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>performance<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>single<span class="_ _7"> </span>neuronal</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y3b ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">unit<span class="_ _9"> </span>reso<span class="_ _0"></span>nse<span class="_ _9"> </span>patte<span class="_ _0"></span>rn<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _d"> </span>for<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>recon<span class="_ _0"></span>stru<span class="_ _0"></span>ctio<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>move<span class="_ _0"></span>ment<span class="_ _9"> </span>se-</div><div class="t m0 x8 ha y3c ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">quen<span class="_ _0"></span>ces<span class="_ _8"> </span>in<span class="_ _7"> </span>healt<span class="_ _0"></span>hy<span class="_ _7"> </span>anim<span class="_ _0"></span>als;<span class="_ _8"> </span>if<span class="_ _7"> </span>they<span class="_ _7"> </span>disc<span class="_ _0"></span>uss<span class="_ _8"> </span>clinic<span class="_ _0"></span>al<span class="_ _7"> </span>appl<span class="_ _0"></span>ic<span class="_ _0"></span>atio<span class="_ _0"></span>ns<span class="_ _8"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x9 h7 y3d ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _8"> </span>author<span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>his<span class="_ _8"> </span>work<span class="_ _8"> </span>are<span class="_ _8"> </span>suppo<span class="_ _0"></span>rt<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _8"> </span>by<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>Deutsch<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _7"> </span>Forsc<span class="_ _0"></span>hu<span class="_ _0"></span>ngs-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y3e ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">geme<span class="_ _0"></span>insc<span class="_ _0"></span>ha<span class="_ _0"></span>ft<span class="_ _1"> </span>(DFG)<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>Natio<span class="_ _0"></span>nal<span class="_ _5"> </span>Institu<span class="_ _0"></span>tes<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>Heal<span class="_ _0"></span>th<span class="_ _1"> </span>(NI<span class="_ _0"></span>H).<span class="_ _1"> </span>The</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y3f ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">edit<span class="_ _0"></span>or,<span class="_ _1"> </span>Bob<span class="_ _5"> </span>Simons,<span class="_ _1"> </span>ma<span class="_ _0"></span>de<span class="_ _5"> </span>invalu<span class="_ _0"></span>able<span class="_ _5"> </span>sugg<span class="_ _0"></span>esti<span class="_ _0"></span>on<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>corr<span class="_ _0"></span>ecti<span class="_ _0"></span>ons<span class="_ _5"> </span>at<span class="_ _1"> </span>all</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y40 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">stag<span class="_ _0"></span>es<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>man<span class="_ _0"></span>uscr<span class="_ _0"></span>ipt&#8217;s<span class="_ _f"> </span>prepa<span class="_ _0"></span>rati<span class="_ _0"></span>on.<span class="_ _f"> </span>The<span class="_ _8"> </span>com<span class="_ _0"></span>ment<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>two<span class="_ _f"> </span>anonymo<span class="_ _0"></span>us</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y41 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">rev<span class="_ _0"></span>iewer<span class="_ _0"></span>s,<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>Many<span class="_ _8"> </span>Donc<span class="_ _0"></span>hin,<span class="_ _8"> </span>Andr<span class="_ _0"></span>ea<span class="_ _8"> </span>Ku</div><div class="t m0 xa h7 y42 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#168;</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y41 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">bler,<span class="_ _f"> </span>Theres<span class="_ _0"></span>a<span class="_ _8"> </span>V<span class="_ _6"></span>aug<span class="_ _0"></span>han,<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>Jon</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y43 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">W<span class="_ _6"></span>olpa<span class="_ _0"></span>w<span class="_ _7"> </span>are<span class="_ _8"> </span>grea<span class="_ _0"></span>tly<span class="_ _7"> </span>app<span class="_ _0"></span>reci<span class="_ _0"></span>ated<span class="_ _0"></span>.<span class="_ _7"> </span>The<span class="_ _8"> </span>data<span class="_ _7"> </span>from<span class="_ _8"> </span>my<span class="_ _7"> </span>labo<span class="_ _0"></span>rato<span class="_ _0"></span>ry<span class="_ _8"> </span>presen<span class="_ _0"></span>ted</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y44 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">here<span class="_ _8"> </span>could<span class="_ _8"> </span>not<span class="_ _7"> </span>have<span class="_ _8"> </span>been<span class="_ _7"> </span>real<span class="_ _0"></span>ized<span class="_ _8"> </span>witho<span class="_ _0"></span>ut<span class="_ _7"> </span>a<span class="_ _7"> </span>func<span class="_ _0"></span>tio<span class="_ _0"></span>ning<span class="_ _8"> </span>interdi<span class="_ _0"></span>sci<span class="_ _0"></span>plin<span class="_ _0"></span>ar<span class="_ _0"></span>y</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y45 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">res<span class="_ _0"></span>earch<span class="_ _7"> </span>team:<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>names<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>team<span class="_ _5"> </span>memb<span class="_ _0"></span>er<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _5"> </span>appea<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _1"> </span>th<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>refer<span class="_ _0"></span>ence<span class="_ _0"></span>s</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y46 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cite<span class="_ _0"></span>d.<span class="_ _c"> </span>They<span class="_ _c"> </span>deser<span class="_ _0"></span>ve<span class="_ _b"> </span>all<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>cred<span class="_ _0"></span>it<span class="_ _b"> </span>for<span class="_ _c"> </span>this<span class="_ _b"> </span>work.<span class="_ _c"> </span>The<span class="_ _c"> </span>manus<span class="_ _0"></span>cr<span class="_ _0"></span>ipt<span class="_ _b"> </span>was</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y47 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">prep<span class="_ _0"></span>are<span class="_ _0"></span>d<span class="_ _9"> </span>durin<span class="_ _0"></span>g<span class="_ _c"> </span>my<span class="_ _d"> </span>sta<span class="_ _0"></span>y<span class="_ _9"> </span>as<span class="_ _9"> </span>a<span class="_ _9"> </span>resea<span class="_ _0"></span>rch<span class="_ _c"> </span>fellow<span class="_ _c"> </span>at<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>NIH,<span class="_ _9"> </span>NIN<span class="_ _0"></span>DS,</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y48 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Bethe<span class="_ _0"></span>sda,<span class="_ _7"> </span>MD:<span class="_ _7"> </span>My<span class="_ _5"> </span>fr<span class="_ _0"></span>iend<span class="_ _7"> </span>Leona<span class="_ _0"></span>rd<span class="_ _0"></span>o<span class="_ _7"> </span>Cohen,<span class="_ _7"> </span>M.D.,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Chi<span class="_ _0"></span>ef<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>Human</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y49 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Corti<span class="_ _0"></span>cal<span class="_ _1"> </span>Physio<span class="_ _0"></span>log<span class="_ _0"></span>y<span class="_ _1"> </span>Section<span class="_ _1"> </span>at<span class="_ _1"> </span>NIND<span class="_ _0"></span>S,<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _1"> </span>Cornelia<span class="_ _1"> </span>W<span class="_ _6"></span>eber<span class="_ _5"> </span>made<span class="_ _1"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y4a ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">time<span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>W<span class="_ _6"></span>ash<span class="_ _0"></span>ing<span class="_ _0"></span>ton,<span class="_ _7"> </span>DC,<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>unique<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>pro<span class="_ _0"></span>duct<span class="_ _0"></span>ive<span class="_ _7"> </span>expe<span class="_ _0"></span>rien<span class="_ _0"></span>ce.</div><div class="t m0 x9 h7 y4b ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Addre<span class="_ _0"></span>ss<span class="_ _c"> </span>repr<span class="_ _0"></span>int<span class="_ _c"> </span>requ<span class="_ _0"></span>ests<span class="_ _c"> </span>to:<span class="_ _c"> </span>Niels<span class="_ _c"> </span>Birbaume<span class="_ _0"></span>r,<span class="_ _c"> </span>Ph.D.,<span class="_ _9"> </span>Institu<span class="_ _0"></span>te<span class="_ _c"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y4c ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Medi<span class="_ _0"></span>cal<span class="_ _5"> </span>Psychol<span class="_ _0"></span>ogy<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>Behav<span class="_ _0"></span>ior<span class="_ _0"></span>al<span class="_ _5"> </span>Neurob<span class="_ _0"></span>iol<span class="_ _0"></span>ogy,<span class="_ _5"> </span>MEG-Cen<span class="_ _0"></span>ter,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Uni-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y4d ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ver<span class="_ _0"></span>sity<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>T<span class="_ _6"></span>u</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y4e ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#168;</div><div class="t m0 xd h7 y4d ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">bing<span class="_ _0"></span>en,<span class="_ _c"> </span>Garten<span class="_ _0"></span>stra<span class="_ _0"></span>sse<span class="_ _c"> </span>29,<span class="_ _9"> </span>D-72074<span class="_ _c"> </span>T<span class="_ _6"></span>u</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y4e ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#168;</div><div class="t m0 xf h7 y4d ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">bing<span class="_ _0"></span>en,<span class="_ _c"> </span>Germany.</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y4f ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">E-mai<span class="_ _0"></span>l:<span class="_ _5"> </span>niels.b<span class="_ _0"></span>irb<span class="_ _0"></span>aume<span class="_ _0"></span>r@uni-T<span class="_ _6"></span>ue<span class="_ _0"></span>bi<span class="_ _0"></span>ngen<span class="_ _0"></span>.de.</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y50 ff3 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Psycho<span class="_ _0"></span>physi<span class="_ _0"></span>olo<span class="_ _0"></span>gy,<span class="_ _5"> </span>43<span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="ff2">(2006),<span class="_ _5"> </span>517&#8211;532.<span class="_ _5"> </span>Blackwell<span class="_ _7"> </span>Publish<span class="_ _0"></span>ing<span class="_ _7"> </span>Inc.<span class="_ _5"> </span>Printed<span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>USA.</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y51 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Copyri<span class="_ _0"></span>ght<span class="_ _7"> </span><span class="ff4">r<span class="_ _5"> </span></span>2006<span class="_ _1"> </span>Soc<span class="_ _0"></span>iety<span class="_ _5"> </span>for<span class="_ _7"> </span>Psychoph<span class="_ _0"></span>ysiol<span class="_ _0"></span>ogic<span class="_ _0"></span>al<span class="_ _5"> </span>Resea<span class="_ _0"></span>rc<span class="_ _0"></span>h</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y52 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">DOI:<span class="_ _5"> </span>10.1111/j.1469-8986.2006.00456.x</div><div class="t m0 x10 h7 y53 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">517</div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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